STEELHEAD Summary
(adapted from Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission)

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Oncorhynchus mykiss, previously known as Salmo
gairdneri
.  The Genus name is Oncorhynchus and the species name is mykiss.

COMMON NAMES: coastal rainbow trout, silvertrout, salmon trout,
steelie, hardhead and ironhead.

DESCRIPTION: In the sea, steelheads are bluish from above and silvery
from below -- tend to be more greenish in freshwater. Small black spots on
back and most fins. Steelhead can grow up to 45 inches in length and 40
pounds in weight; although steelhead usually weighs less than 10 pounds.

LIFE CYCLE: Spawning in streams and rivers, steelhead rear in freshwater
for 1 to 4 years before migrating downstream through estuaries to the open
ocean. Unlike salmon, steelhead migrate individually rather than in schools.
Steelhead spend 1 to 5 years at sea before returning to natal streams or
rivers. At least two specific stocks of steelhead have developed; those that
enter fresh water during fall, winter and early spring -- the winter run -- and
those that enter in spring, summer and early fall -- the summer run.
Steelhead do not always die after spawning, but will again migrate through
estuaries to the ocean.

HABITAT AND ECOLOGY: Steelhead need streams, rivers, estuaries and
marine habitats during their lifecycle.  In freshwater and estuarine habitats,
steelhead feed on small crustaceans, insects, and small fishes. Steelhead
eggs are laid in small and medium gravels and need good water flow (to supply
oxygen) to survive. After emerging from the redd (nest) they remain in
streams and rivers for 1 to 4 years before migrating through the estuaries
to the ocean.

Young steelhead spend a significant portion of their lives in rivers and
streams and so they are particularly susceptible to human induced changes to
water quality and habitat quality.  Poor timber and agricultural management
practices can lead to siltation in streams, which may ruin spawning beds or
smother the eggs by filling in the spaces between gravels. Additionally, in
many rivers, migrating steelhead face the physical obstacles and high water
temperatures resulting from dams, inadequate water flows in rivers and
streams due to water diversions for irrigation, and the impoundment of
water for power generation.

RANGE: Steelhead were originally found from northwestern Mexico to the
Kuskokwim River in Alaska; however, now it is unusual to find steelhead south
of Ventura River, California. Significant steelhead rivers in Oregon include
the Rogue, Umpqua and Clackamas Rivers.

ECONOMIC VALUE: Steelhead is one of the top five sport fish in North
America, and is caught primarily in streams and rivers.
Links
Steelhead
Status
in California
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Fish and Game Wildlife Pictures
Counter
http://www.sacriverguide.com/fishing-report/default.htm
Florin High School Web Cam
Educational Resources
CA DFG 2006 Freshwater Fish Regs pdf
Fish in the Classroom Guide pdf

Elementary
Fish 2-5 Salmon Previsit pdf
Fish ABC pdf
Salmon Coloring pdf
Monteray Decode a Fish pdf


Middle- High School
River Teachers Salmon 6-8 pdf
Steelhead Game 7th  pdf
Alaska Animals of the Sea  pdf
Biosite Curriculum pdf
Biosite Unit 7 Fish Complete pdf
Canadian Salmonids in the Classroom pdf
Fish Journey   pdf



Ecosystem Organisms Fact Sheets
Clams and Mussels pdf
Crazy Crayfish pdf
Critter Collection pdf
Dragon and Damsels  pdf
Mayflies  pdf
Snails pdf
Stoneflies  pdf
Metamorphisis  
pdf

Morphology/Adaptations
Adaptations in Fish  word
Bony fish word
Anatomy ppt
California Anadromous Fish pdf
Article Climate pdf
Delta Temperature Review pdf
California Temperature pdf
Hatching Time  word
How Fish Breathe  word
Biodiversity ppt
Dissection pdf
Fish adaptations doc

Aquaculture Salmonids
ppt
Ecology ppt
Life Cycle ppt
Lots of information for kids of all ages!